Remote Control Technical Specifications
NEC
APEX
HITACHI
PIONEER


NEC - APEX - HITACHI - PIONEER
U
se a "bit-width" codification, it seems to be a standard in Japanese remotes.

Lets consider the smaller time as T, measuring 560 microseconds.

Each transmited bit is composed by +T -T for bit zero or +T -3T for bit 1.
So, bit zero has a length of 1120us, while bit 1 is 2240us.

                                                                Figure 1

The UP level (+T) on the above signal means infrared being transmitted
by 36kHz carrier, while the DOWN level means silence.

If you hook up an infrared Module Sensor, you will see this waveform
inverted at its output, since its output goes DOWN in presence of
infrared carrier of 36kHz.

Well, lets see the DATA Frame:

                                                                Figure 2

First it is transmited a Start, long 16T active 36kHz infrared, it is around
9ms time (16T) and it is used to wake-up the receiver.

The Start is followed by 4.3ms of silence, it is about 7.5T time. This odd
time is what identifies the frame, or a Data Frame or a Repeat Frame.

4.3ms or 7.5T time means DATA Frame.

Then follows 32 bits of data, broken down in 4 bytes of 8 bits.

The first 8 bits is the Address.
The second 8 bits is the Address Complement.  $05 turns $FA
The third 8 bits is the Command.
The fourth 8 bits is the Command Complement.

The complement is used by 3 reasons;
A)  to validate the reception
B)  to keep the transmission the same time length always.
C) to make sure the receiver understand last bit to be ONE or ZERO.

As you can see at FIGURE1, after finishing the transmission the line
level goess DOWN.  The second part of each bit is also level DOWN.  
As the coding for bit 0 or 1 is defined by the length of the second part of
the bit, and at the last bit there is no way to identify the length of the
DOWN level, since the line will continuous DOWN for at least 110ms,
it is impossible the receiver find out if the last bit is zero or one.

                                                                Figure 3

The Start and Sync above are out of proportion for 16T and 7.5T when
compared to a single T, but it is just for understanding.

The DATA Frame uses 48T time of active infrared power.

If you keep pressed a remote key, this Japanese codification will not
be repeating the DATA Frame as the Sony or RC5 coding do, instead
it first send just once the DATA Frame and then it keep transmiting a
REPEAT frame every 110ms:

                                                                Figure 4

The REPEAT Frame consist of again the Start (16T) pulse, followed now
by a different Sync Silence of only 4T (in the DATA Frame it is 7.5T), then
by a single pulse of T time.   This REPEAT frame will keep repeating
itself each 196T time or 110ms, until you release the remote key.
As the REPEAT Frame uses only 17T active infrared power, so it uses
only 17/48 of the DATA Frame power, saving 65% of battery power
while you keep a key pressed.

The REPEAT Frame is identified by the Sync of only 4T.
The DATA Frame is identified by the Sync of 7.5T.


The following procedure to detect and identify the code, will work
with ANY microcontroller / microprocessor.

1)  Set Var1 = 128,  Var2 = 0,  Var2 = 0,  Var4 = 0

2)  Start by waiting the signal to go DOWN - This will be the START Bit.

3)  Wait for the signal to go UP - This should take about 9ms to happens.

4)  You are in the Sync Time.
     This should take about 4.3ms if DATA Frame or 2.25ms if REPEAT frame.

5)  Wait for the signal to go DOWN

6)  Here you are in the IR active time, bit start pulse.
     Wait for the signal to go UP.

7)  Here you are in the silence period, where it will decide if the bit is 0 or 1.
     Now Wait 800 microseconds.

8)  Measure the Signal Level.

     If the level is DOWN, then the Transmitted Bit is Zero, since the previous
     bit already  finished and the new bit already started. Then you should do:
     -  Set Carry Bit Zero
     -  Rotate Right Var1
     -  Rotate Right Var2
     -  Rotate Right Var3
     -  Rotate Right Var4
     -  Check Carry Bit - If On then Goto End.  If Off then Go back to step [6]

     If the level is UP, then the Transmitted Bit is ONE, since the previous
     bit didn't finished yet and you are in the 3T time. Then you should do:
     -  Set Carry Bit ONE
     -  Rotate Right Var1
     -  Rotate Right Var2
     -  Rotate Right Var3
     -  Rotate Right Var4
     -  Check Carry Bit - If On then Goto End.  If Off then Go back to step [5]
 
By doing this sequence, you only need a timming routine of 800
microseconds, and don't need to measure individual bits.

At the END, you could Exclusive OR Var1 with Var2, then Var3 with Var4,
as they are complement of each other, each Exclusive Or should end up
with a result of $FF, what means no error on the transmission.


Observe loaded VAR1 with value 128 (binary 10000000) at entry, this bit will exit
into Carry only after 32 times "Rotate Right  Var1, Var2, Var3, Var4, since there are
32 bits to be shifted left to this happen.  It is used as a Rotation Left Counter.



List of Var1/Var3 read from the
HITACHI Remote Control CLU-572TSI:

Codes Var2:Var4 (Command:Address)

12:50  VOL +
15:50  VOL -
19:50  CHA +
18:50  CHA -
09:50  Input
14:50  Help
6F:50  Aspect
6C:50  C.S.
17:50  Power
0B:50  Mute
0C:50  0
0D:50  1
0E:50  2
0F:50  3
1C:50  4
1D:50  5
1E:50  6
1F:50  7
04:50  8
05:50  9
10:50  Recall
64:50  Exit
53:50  Menu
72:50  Joystick Right
73:50  Joystick Left
70:50  Joystick Up
71:50  Joystick Down
2E:50  Joystick Select
35:50  CloseCaption
11:50  Sleep
0A:50  LastChannel
2D:50  SVCS
51:50  VCRPlus
2F:50  Info
44:50  Guide
2C:50  SCho
58:50  PIP
07:50  PIP Channel
61:50  Freeze PIP
5A:50  PIP Mode
59:50  Swap PIP



List of Var1/Var3 read from the
APEX DVD DV-R200 Remote Control

Codes Var1:Var3 (Command:Address)
Showing here the Complementary Bytes

A5:EE  POWER
E7:EE  OPEN/CLOSE
BC:EE  TITLE
BD:EE  AUDIO
BE:EE  SUB-T
BF:EE  ANGLE
B8:EE  1
B9:EE  2
BA:EE  3
B4:EE  4
B5:EE  5
B6:EE  6
B0:EE  7
B1:EE  8
B2:EE  9
AC:EE  0
AD:EE  +10
AE:EE  MUTE
BB:EE  P/N
B7:EE  ZOOM
B3:EE  VOL+
AF:EE  VOL-
A8:EE  SKIP |<<
A9:EE  SKIP >>|
AA:EE  REV <<
AB:EE  FWD >>
F9:EE  STOP
A7:EE  PAUSE
FA:EE  RESUME
F6:EE  ENTER/>
E4:EE  SETUP
F8:EE  SELECT LEFT
F2:EE  SELECT RIGHT
F0:EE  SELECT UP
F4:EE  SELECT DOWN
E8:EE  SLOW
E9:EE  STEP
EB:EE  REPEAT
EA:EE  A-B RPT
EC:EE  PCB OFF
ED:EE  DVD DIGEST
EF:EE  GOTO
EE:EE  DISPLAY
FC:EE  SUFFLE
FE:EE  PROGRAM


This is the List of Var1/Var2 read from the
PIONEER LASERDISK CU-CLD067
Remote Control

Only noted Address (VAR1) to be 15.
Var3 (Commands not collected)


If you want to have your Sony remote control read and posted here, send it to our mail address
posted at the home page. If you want your remote back, please send $3.95 in stamps along with
the remote, so we'll ship it back to you via priority mail (don't forget to include your name and mail
address). If you have a list of your Sony remote control codes  just email me it, I will post it here..

Wagner Lipnharski - UST Research Inc - March/2002

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